Category: Publications


6G Position Statement

This essential publication guides a course for the future of communication networks and calls the industry to transform the way new technology generations are introduced enabling compelling new services and capabilities for end users while streamlining network operations and prioritising sustainability.

It provides comprehensive guidance across several key requirements and design principles, including network simplification, absolute energy reduction, network AI transformation and predictive network management, safe and resilient infrastructure, global 6G standards, software upgrade to 6G, no intrinsic need for hardware refresh, no compromise to existing services (Voice) and access across mobile, fixed and non-terrestrial networks.


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Recommendation on Base Station Active Antenna System Standards V3.0

Consumers, businesses and industry more than ever require mobile connectivity that is secure, reliable and of high-quality. The radio link between the device and the network is a critical factor in realising these performance needs.

Our latest “Recommendation on Base Station Active Antenna System Standards” provides the industry with an updated set of parameter definitions, measurement methodologies and reporting processes. This enables a uniform way to describe the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the network side of the radio link (the “base station antenna”).

By using such a common approach describing active base station antennas, mobile networks can be better and more cost-effectively planned, engineered, and operated to ensure the high-quality mobile service that users, businesses and industry demand.


Cloud Native Manifesto

On our journey to highly flexible, sustainable, and resilient networks for the future, we believe in applying the following cloud native principles to all layers of network infrastructure, applications, and services*:

1. Decoupled infrastructure and application lifecycles over vertical monoliths;

2. ‘API first’ over manual provisioning of network resources;

3. Declarative and intent-based automation over imperative workflows;

4. GitOps** principles over traditional network operations practices;

5. Unified Kubernetes (or the like) resource consumption patterns over domain-specific resource controllers;

6. Unified Kubernetes (or the like) closed-loop reconciliation patterns over vendorspecific element management practices; and

7. Interoperability by well-defined certification processes over vendor-specific optimisation.

We also believe that openness and compatibility principles need to be key drivers of future Telecom and network services implementations to ensure we leverage Cloud Native principles to encourage software – orchestration – and hardware disaggregation.

Building a cloud native architecture calls for a joint effort among telecom operators, suppliers, and partners. This is described in this document by stating a few principal requirements and by outlining the area of focus for this journey from an operator point of view.

* Does not imply order of priority

** Everything as code, single point of truth, immutable source of trust



Green Future Networks: KPIs and Target Values for Green Network Assessment

This NGMN publication outlines a set of KPIs and target values alongside a framework for consolidating the KPIs into an overall measure. The framework encompasses two major pillars: Environmental KPIs as well as Energy and Quality of Experience KPIs. The outlined KPIs build upon and utilise the best practices of existing telco sustainability initiatives and frameworks and, in an industry first, define target values and a scoring methodology for consolidating multiple KPIs into a single measure. Further NGMN suggests to combine energy efficiency and service quality KPIs to produce a useful measure of how an operator is improving its energy efficiency while maintaining the high service quality end users expect from their mobile network.

As the industry gains experience with these metrics, it is anticipated that the KPIs and the framework will be further developed to ensure continued alignment with industry needs. This will include ensuring that the NGMN KPIs and framework continue to be aligned with work of other industry bodies – with the ultimate aim of ensuring a single set of industry wide agreed KPIs.



6G Requirements and Design Considerations

In this publication, the NGMN Alliance builds on its earlier work “6G Use Cases and Analysis” and sets out important aspects for network evolution, considering the opportunities, challenges and design objectives that are intended to guide the broader industry towards delivering services valued by end users. The objectives of this work have been to explore design requirements and provide timely guidance to the industry, to play a key role in avoiding fragmentation of 6G standards and ecosystem to achieve affordable deployments, and to engage with different stakeholders, monitor external 6G activities and facilitate timely exchange with external organisations.



Green Future Networks: Telco Supply Chain Sustainability

In this first publication of NGMN’s Green Future Networks Phase 2 in 2023, the key challenges mobile operators face in developing sustainable supply chains are outlined. A review of the emerging regulatory and standards environment is conducted.  Approaches and best practices in developing sustainable supply chains are identified by relating the emerging business and regulatory environment to examples of the changes that operators and their supply chain partners may need to make, both at strategic and operational levels. Integrating sustainability goals into the operator’s core objectives is of key importance as well as selecting suppliers whose own sustainability strategies are aligned with these goals. Finally, a checklist based on the best practices in the industry is provided to support operators in developing a sustainable procurement strategy. Examples from across the industry are included that highlight that companies are already embracing many of the concepts identified in this publication.


Definition of the Testing Framework for the NGMN 5G Trial and Testing Initiative Phase 2_v1

Definition of the Testing Framework for the NGMN 5G Trial and Testing Initiative Phase 2 V1.8

This White Paper focuses on the definition of the testing framework for Release 16, including the test configurations, the working scope, the trial setup requirements, and the testing methodologies. The scope of testing covers four technology categories: Smart and Effective System, Enhancement of Existing Capabilities, Maximising Spectrum Value, and New Application Enabler. Each category consists of several technology directions, which are broken down to the technology features highlighted from the global operators’ perspective. The corresponding test results will be published in future NGMN deliverables.


Pre-Commercial Network Slicing Trials Major Conclusions

While several documents have already been produced on the network slicing concept, technical details, and business cases, this White Paper tackles a more challenging, complex and practical domain by consolidating the pre-commercial network slicing test results from different chipset platforms and indicates that 5G smartphones and 5G S-modules have been able to support network slicing. Tests were performed based on the published testing framework White Paper, where all test objectives, pre-configurations, procedures, and success criteria were defined. Observations introduced in this White Paper give the insight of some future improvements in network slicing.


Automation and Autonomous System Architecture Framework

As networks – through disaggregation and the move towards cloud-native – become increasingly complex it becomes ever more challenging to manage the network using existing processes and tools.  To keep pace there is a need to go beyond simple automation and towards the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) driven ‘autonomous’ systems that can learn how to manage and operate the network.  This publication describes a high-level framework, in terms of entities and functions that characterise autonomous system capabilities with an E2E (end-to-end) system perspective.

The architectural framework is intended to serve as guidance in the development of inter-operable and market enabling specifications, for a continuing advancement of the 5G ecosystem of heterogeneous access, virtualization, forward-looking service enablers, and emerging usage scenarios.


Standard RF Cluster Connector for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R Applications

The mobile communication industry has an increasing demand for highly integrated antennas with a large number of RF ports: the introduction of higher MIMO orders (8×8 configurations) and beamforming for FDD is an efficient way of sending signals in specific directions to improve throughput and reliability.  Nonetheless, antenna size is a critical factor in network deployment, which limits the number of connectors in antennas. Cluster connectors aim to solve this problem, through integrating several RF ports into single connectors.

This publication – the third in a series – focuses on RF cluster connectors for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R applications operating in frequency bands below 3 GHz.  Industry requirements for the connectors are identified and a test plan is defined.  Parties can use the test plan to determine whether candidate cluster connectors fulfil the requirements.