Category: Publications



Consumers, businesses and industry more than ever require mobile connectivity that is secure, reliable and of high-quality. The radio link between the device and the network is a critical factor in realising these performance needs.

Our latest “Recommendation on Standards for Passive Base Station Antenna Systems” provides the industry with an updated set of parameter definitions, measurement methodologies and reporting processes. This enables a uniform way to describe the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the network side of the radio link (the “base station antenna”).

Key updates include the addition of electrical parameters of passive antennas with beamforming capabilities (e.g. 8T8R antennas) as well as wind load polar charts measured in a wind tunnel to provide important data which engineers can use to confidently construct lighter radio masts with clear benefits to reducing materials usage in network build outs.

By using such a common approach describing passive base station antennas, mobile networks can be better and more cost-effectively planned, engineered, and operated to ensure the high-quality mobile service that users, businesses and industry demand.




The 5G network slicing can provide on-demand network slices to satisfy different service requirements. However, how to guarantee the network slicing service quality of 5G devices by the network slicing test based on the actual network elements is still a technical gap to be addressed.

Therefore, the fundamental purpose of this document is to provide a testing framework for 5G device network slicing pre-commercial trials based on the actual network elements, which include the test cases of the configuration and usage of NSSAI, UE route selection policy, interworking with EPC and other service specific network slicing test cases.



The identification of 6G use cases is key to predicting major trends in future usage scenarios and will help to steer the needs and requirements for future generational change. Therefore, operators, technology suppliers and academic advisors in NGMN joined forces and contributed their views on which 6G use cases they predict will emerge in the future decade. The result is published in NGMN’s “6G Use Cases and Analysis” White Paper.


Experience on Cloud Native Adoption

This document reports experience from the NGMN Partners on the adoption and the studies currently ongoing on Cloud Native. NGMN, at the beginning of 2021, released a White Paper providing an overall view on the Cloud Native evolution. That document is about a long journey that is still ongoing and foresees different steps to reach full maturity. The intention of this document is to highlight some of the areas that are on the spotlight now, and the steps that the Partners are currently doing in respect to that journey.

NGMN 5G TDD Uplink White Paper v1.0

5G TDD Uplink v1.0

This White Paper contemplates the challenges for Vertical Industries to achieve sufficient uplink throughput or cell capacity and low enough latency for their industrial use cases, when using 5G TDD bands for the realization of those use cases. After looking into the problem, various technical solutions are being considered, some of them providing solutions for the management of interference between base stations or mobile handsets, when deviating frame structures are being used to support the industries’ requirements. The document concludes with specific recommendations to regulators and mobile industry partners who want to support the industry with adequate solutions.

Metering for Sustainable Networks

Green Future Networks – Metering for Sustainable Networks v1.0

This White Paper’s recommendations are:

  • To identify and understand the behaviour of energy intensive or under-utilized parts of the network and in order to optimize and manage them in an energy efficient way it is recommended to deploy metering. Metering with more granular measurements will enable to check the energy performance of equipment in real time condition as well as to improve and promote the use of renewable energy source in a more optimized way.
  • It is recommended to deploy metering at the network and technical sites to measure the energy consumption and other relevant parameters such as temperature and humidity of the active equipment e.g. radio, backhauling and core equipment.
  • Standardized metering shall be defined with generic unified architecture for data collection, site internal communication architecture ideally equipped with higher level intelligent Next Generation Control Unit or Data Gathering Unit. In addition, measurement parameters with given accuracy as well as data collection and interfaces, including virtualized and NFV environments should be standardized
5G Devices Over the Air Performance

5G Devices Over the Air Performance v1.0

The purpose of this document is to provide a survey and analysis of 5G Devices Over the Air test methodologies and performance requirements defined by the most relevant Standard Development Organizations in the mobile industry.
Furthermore, this White Paper is aimed at providing NGMN recommendations on best practices and best ways forward for getting consensus, among mobile industry players, on the definition of 5G Devices OTA performance requirements not yet finalized.

Green Future Networks - Network Energy Efficiency

Green Future Networks: Network Energy Efficiency

The energy performance of mobile networks has improved over the years due to introduction of new generations of cellular technology, with better spectral efficiency, advanced hardware with lower power consumption and also many energy saving features introduced in mobile networks. As the deployment of these energy saving features represents an important step in improving energy performance of mobile networks, this publication studies the different existing and coming new energy saving features and of course their potential when rolled out in the networks. It also defines the next steps for further energy performance activities and studies. Other topics addressed by the publication are related to the different types of hardware, architectures, and site solutions.

NGMN ODiN White Paper Cover

ODiN – Operating Disaggregated Networks

With network disaggregation, mobile network operators along with their partners are facing a major paradigm shift.

It promises a great deal of prospects, including the mere ability to respond to new demands of socio-economic transformation, of increasingly mobile, connected and smart societies, and automated industries. This paradigm shift, however, comes with a wide range of challenges.

This publication explores the appealing opportunities and the expected challenges arising from the disaggregation of mobile networks.

We put an emphasis on the perspective of mobile network operators and expected benefits such as:

  1. lower barriers to enter the market
  2. a more resilient ecosystem and supply chain
  3. enabled increased competition and innovation
  4. agility and flexibility

As well as expected challenges such as:

  1. increasing complexities in interoperability and in
  2. system integration and
  3. in achieving efficient and resilient operation

All these aspects lead to the need for a significant operating model transformation.

Going forward, we will develop blueprints for end-to-end operating models, enabling operators to make their individual right choices, and to address the industry to develop solutions for identified gaps.

With our ODiN project we invite the entire NGMN Partnership – vendors, system integrators and other interested parties – to jointly work on operating model requirements, analyse potential gaps and work on industry solutions to resolve the identified challenges. The project will also work with other relevant organisations and submit requirements to the industry.

BASTA Active Antennas v2.0

Recommendation on Base Station Active Antenna System Standards

The main scope of this White Paper is to describe and capture the electrical and mechanical key performance parameters of Active Antenna Systems and how to exchange this data electronically.

In addition, for the aim of RF-Electromagnetic Field exposure, a description of mechanisms to monitor and limit the power radiated by Active Antenna Systems is provided.

This is version 2.0 of the White Paper, which supersedes the version 1.0 published in January 2020.