Category: Publications


Experience on Cloud Native Adoption

This document reports experience from the NGMN Partners on the adoption and the studies currently ongoing on Cloud Native. NGMN, at the beginning of 2021, released a White Paper providing an overall view on the Cloud Native evolution. That document is about a long journey that is still ongoing and foresees different steps to reach full maturity. The intention of this document is to highlight some of the areas that are on the spotlight now, and the steps that the Partners are currently doing in respect to that journey.

NGMN 5G TDD Uplink White Paper v1.0

5G TDD Uplink v1.0

This White Paper contemplates the challenges for Vertical Industries to achieve sufficient uplink throughput or cell capacity and low enough latency for their industrial use cases, when using 5G TDD bands for the realization of those use cases. After looking into the problem, various technical solutions are being considered, some of them providing solutions for the management of interference between base stations or mobile handsets, when deviating frame structures are being used to support the industries’ requirements. The document concludes with specific recommendations to regulators and mobile industry partners who want to support the industry with adequate solutions.

Metering for Sustainable Networks

Green Future Networks – Metering for Sustainable Networks v1.0

This White Paper’s recommendations are:

  • To identify and understand the behaviour of energy intensive or under-utilized parts of the network and in order to optimize and manage them in an energy efficient way it is recommended to deploy metering. Metering with more granular measurements will enable to check the energy performance of equipment in real time condition as well as to improve and promote the use of renewable energy source in a more optimized way.
  • It is recommended to deploy metering at the network and technical sites to measure the energy consumption and other relevant parameters such as temperature and humidity of the active equipment e.g. radio, backhauling and core equipment.
  • Standardized metering shall be defined with generic unified architecture for data collection, site internal communication architecture ideally equipped with higher level intelligent Next Generation Control Unit or Data Gathering Unit. In addition, measurement parameters with given accuracy as well as data collection and interfaces, including virtualized and NFV environments should be standardized
5G Devices Over the Air Performance

5G Devices Over the Air Performance v1.0

The purpose of this document is to provide a survey and analysis of 5G Devices Over the Air test methodologies and performance requirements defined by the most relevant Standard Development Organizations in the mobile industry.
Furthermore, this White Paper is aimed at providing NGMN recommendations on best practices and best ways forward for getting consensus, among mobile industry players, on the definition of 5G Devices OTA performance requirements not yet finalized.

Green Future Networks - Network Energy Efficiency

Green Future Networks: Network Energy Efficiency

The energy performance of mobile networks has improved over the years due to introduction of new generations of cellular technology, with better spectral efficiency, advanced hardware with lower power consumption and also many energy saving features introduced in mobile networks. As the deployment of these energy saving features represents an important step in improving energy performance of mobile networks, this publication studies the different existing and coming new energy saving features and of course their potential when rolled out in the networks. It also defines the next steps for further energy performance activities and studies. Other topics addressed by the publication are related to the different types of hardware, architectures, and site solutions.

NGMN ODiN White Paper Cover

ODiN – Operating Disaggregated Networks

With network disaggregation, mobile network operators along with their partners are facing a major paradigm shift.

It promises a great deal of prospects, including the mere ability to respond to new demands of socio-economic transformation, of increasingly mobile, connected and smart societies, and automated industries. This paradigm shift, however, comes with a wide range of challenges.

This publication explores the appealing opportunities and the expected challenges arising from the disaggregation of mobile networks.

We put an emphasis on the perspective of mobile network operators and expected benefits such as:

  1. lower barriers to enter the market
  2. a more resilient ecosystem and supply chain
  3. enabled increased competition and innovation
  4. agility and flexibility

As well as expected challenges such as:

  1. increasing complexities in interoperability and in
  2. system integration and
  3. in achieving efficient and resilient operation

All these aspects lead to the need for a significant operating model transformation.

Going forward, we will develop blueprints for end-to-end operating models, enabling operators to make their individual right choices, and to address the industry to develop solutions for identified gaps.

With our ODiN project we invite the entire NGMN Partnership – vendors, system integrators and other interested parties – to jointly work on operating model requirements, analyse potential gaps and work on industry solutions to resolve the identified challenges. The project will also work with other relevant organisations and submit requirements to the industry.

BASTA Active Antennas v2.0

Recommendation on Base Station Active Antenna System Standards

The main scope of this White Paper is to describe and capture the electrical and mechanical key performance parameters of Active Antenna Systems and how to exchange this data electronically.

In addition, for the aim of RF-Electromagnetic Field exposure, a description of mechanisms to monitor and limit the power radiated by Active Antenna Systems is provided.

This is version 2.0 of the White Paper, which supersedes the version 1.0 published in January 2020.


Security Considerations for 5G Network Operation

A 5G network relies on many new features like SDN/NFV while also introducing other new features such as slicing and MEC. New technologies and features create new challenges for operators in the 5G era to provide security protection for network operation. Moreover, the 5G network supports vertical industries where additional security requirements need to be considered by the 5G network to support vertical business services. Although network operation depends heavily on individual operator’s specific deployment and operations systems, it is still a good practice to build a common security ground for the success of 5G network deployment and operation.

The scope of this document is to:

  • Analyse new challenges as well as common security issues for 5G network operation
  • Investigate security requirements and guidelines in a technical and/or non-technical way for 5G network operation
Network Customisation Based on Service Based Architecture V2.2

Network Customisation Based on Service Based Architecture

In order to investigate the 5G service-based architecture (SBA) evolution to support various Verticals’ requirements, this White Paper provides some considerations including network functionality evolution, platform design and dynamic network resource allocation. The main aspects of this paper cover User Plane Function (UPF) service design and capability exposure, edge computing support, 5G network customisation, and dynamic network slice allocation.

NGMN Sustainable Trust

Security Competence Team: Sustainable Trust

Trust is a unique property in a human society, and has been implicitly existed in telecommunication system. Properly, managing Trust in telecommunication system would become a norm. Sustainable Trust Model puts telecommunication system into a new era. It provides a runtime evaluation of trustworthiness to all network functions and stakeholders via standard interactions. It also gives a complementary to all standardization development organizations (SDO) Trust Models.