Category: Publications


6G Requirements and Design Considerations

In this publication, the NGMN Alliance builds on its earlier work “6G Use Cases and Analysis” and sets out important aspects for network evolution, considering the opportunities, challenges and design objectives that are intended to guide the broader industry towards delivering services valued by end users. The objectives of this work have been to explore design requirements and provide timely guidance to the industry, to play a key role in avoiding fragmentation of 6G standards and ecosystem to achieve affordable deployments, and to engage with different stakeholders, monitor external 6G activities and facilitate timely exchange with external organisations.


Publication Green Future Networks: Telco Supply Chain Sustainability Cover

Green Future Networks: Telco Supply Chain Sustainability

In this first publication of NGMN’s Green Future Networks Phase 2 in 2023, the key challenges mobile operators face in developing sustainable supply chains are outlined. A review of the emerging regulatory and standards environment is conducted.  Approaches and best practices in developing sustainable supply chains are identified by relating the emerging business and regulatory environment to examples of the changes that operators and their supply chain partners may need to make, both at strategic and operational levels. Integrating sustainability goals into the operator’s core objectives is of key importance as well as selecting suppliers whose own sustainability strategies are aligned with these goals. Finally, a checklist based on the best practices in the industry is provided to support operators in developing a sustainable procurement strategy. Examples from across the industry are included that highlight that companies are already embracing many of the concepts identified in this publication.


Definition of the Testing Framework for the NGMN 5G Trial and Testing Initiative Phase 2_v1

Definition of the Testing Framework for the NGMN 5G Trial and Testing Initiative Phase 2 V1.8

This White Paper focuses on the definition of the testing framework for Release 16, including the test configurations, the working scope, the trial setup requirements, and the testing methodologies. The scope of testing covers four technology categories: Smart and Effective System, Enhancement of Existing Capabilities, Maximising Spectrum Value, and New Application Enabler. Each category consists of several technology directions, which are broken down to the technology features highlighted from the global operators’ perspective. The corresponding test results will be published in future NGMN deliverables.


Pre-Commercial Network Slicing Trials Major Conclusions

While several documents have already been produced on the network slicing concept, technical details, and business cases, this White Paper tackles a more challenging, complex and practical domain by consolidating the pre-commercial network slicing test results from different chipset platforms and indicates that 5G smartphones and 5G S-modules have been able to support network slicing. Tests were performed based on the published testing framework White Paper, where all test objectives, pre-configurations, procedures, and success criteria were defined. Observations introduced in this White Paper give the insight of some future improvements in network slicing.


Automation and Autonomous System Architecture Framework

As networks – through disaggregation and the move towards cloud-native – become increasingly complex it becomes ever more challenging to manage the network using existing processes and tools.  To keep pace there is a need to go beyond simple automation and towards the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) driven ‘autonomous’ systems that can learn how to manage and operate the network.  This publication describes a high-level framework, in terms of entities and functions that characterise autonomous system capabilities with an E2E (end-to-end) system perspective.

The architectural framework is intended to serve as guidance in the development of inter-operable and market enabling specifications, for a continuing advancement of the 5G ecosystem of heterogeneous access, virtualization, forward-looking service enablers, and emerging usage scenarios.


Standard RF Cluster Connector for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R Applications

The mobile communication industry has an increasing demand for highly integrated antennas with a large number of RF ports: the introduction of higher MIMO orders (8×8 configurations) and beamforming for FDD is an efficient way of sending signals in specific directions to improve throughput and reliability.  Nonetheless, antenna size is a critical factor in network deployment, which limits the number of connectors in antennas. Cluster connectors aim to solve this problem, through integrating several RF ports into single connectors.

This publication – the third in a series – focuses on RF cluster connectors for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R applications operating in frequency bands below 3 GHz.  Industry requirements for the connectors are identified and a test plan is defined.  Parties can use the test plan to determine whether candidate cluster connectors fulfil the requirements.


5G Mobile Network Sharing Security V1.02

Mobile network sharing could occur on different levels and with various sharing options in the mobile network infrastructure. Usually, these various sharing options require a thorough consideration of levels of protection. However, these levels of protection and security measures might affect the decision of selecting the types of sharing options. Vertical industries are facing a great challenge on selecting the suitable sharing option for their service and the adequate security for the particular mobile network infrastructure sharing option. This White Paper provides a reference for MNOs and vertical industries to identify the adequate security on each mobile network infrastructure sharing option.


Operating Disaggregated Networks V2.0

“ODiN – Operating Disaggregated Networks v2.0”, provides a detailed breakdown on how disaggregation impacts an operator’s organisation and processes. The publication covers RAN, core and transport disaggregation and outlines how planning, deployment, service provision, optimisation and maintenance processes will be impacted. In addition, the publication highlights the impact on processes of cloudification and the need to move towards the use of greater network automation whilst embracing DevSecOps. The opportunities, challenges and the impact on network testing are also explained. Developed by the NGMN Alliance’s Partners – operators, vendors, system integrators, and research institutes –, the new publication builds on “ODiN – Operating Disaggregated Networks v1.0” from October 2021, which outlined the opportunities and challenges of network disaggregation.


NGMN 5G Network Security Capability Framework for Verticals

MNOs leverage their 5G networks and services to provide vertical industries with dedicated solutions, including security services to make vertical applications secure and robust.

However, various vertical industries have different requirements related to security.

They may request customised network security protection from MNOs.

In this paper, the security requirements for 5G verticals in smart grid, UAS, healthcare, automotive and smart city are analysed and a framework of security capabilities is proposed.

A recommendation is provided to guide vertical industries on how to build and deploy appropriate security capabilities to improve the security level.



NGMN 5G Devices SA Migration Scenarios

To ensure the coexistence of 5G and 4G Devices, enabling the use of the new 5G Core Network, operators need to manage a transition period in which both 5G deployment architectures are present.

Taking a devices perspective, this white paper looks specifically at how Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) who currently operate 4G and 5G Non Standalone (NSA) networks can evolve to support 5G Standalone (SA) networks.

This paper presents a way to handle and optimize this transition. The goal is not only to guarantee an effective usage of the most valuable FDD and TDD Sub-6 bands (< 6GHz) but also effective usage of all frequency assets.

The re-farming strategies that can be implemented by Operators will inevitably be influenced by the speed of penetration of 5G Devices and the frequency bands that they support. Accordingly, a potential migration timeline has been defined.