Category: Publications

Continuous Delivery in Telecom Networks

Continuous Delivery in Telecommunication Network Environments

Today, production networks are strictly separated from test networks and development environment networks for security and operational reasons. This gap between “Continuous Integration” automation in one network zone and deployment automations in other network zones hinders seamless “Continuous Delivery” automation.

This white paper focuses on solving the this challenge.

5G E2E Architecture Framework

5G End-to-End Architecture Framework v3.0.8

The purpose of this document is to provide a high-level framework of architecture principles and requirements that provide guidance and direction for NGMN partners and standards development organisations in the shaping of the 5G suite of interoperable capabilities, enablers, and services. It builds on the architectural concepts and proposals implied by the NGMN White Paper and subsequent deliverables published by NGMN.


The elements of functional virtualisation shift of computing to the edges of the network, and leveraging of spectrum distribution and flexibility, are among the dominant themes that shape the 5G ecosystem. Optimisation of operational and performance efficiencies, while creating and delivering an exceptional and customisable user experience is of paramount significance.

Joint NGMN/WBA RAN Convergence White Paper

Joint NGMN/WBA RAN Convergence Paper

In order to examine the best future solutions for convergence of Wi-Fi and 5G, this paper examines the current Wi-Fi interworking solutions available for 4G systems using either trusted or untrusted Wi-Fi access, through either Core Network based or RAN level integration. It also reviews the 3GPP 5G system approach to Wi-Fi access, which includes integration of untrusted Wi-Fi access in Release 15 and the new opportunities in Release 16 for trusted Wi-Fi access as well as wireline and cable modem access such as from a residential gateway. Release 16 specified Access Traffic Steering, Switching and Splitting (ATSSS) functionality is analyzed which enables data session over one or more concurrent accesses.
Recommendation for RF Cluster Connector

NGMN reaches 5G Milestone with Recommendation of Common Cluster Connector

This document describes the objective of the NGMN cluster connector taskforce project, outlines the process for reaching an industry wide decision meeting the objective, and summarizes the outcome of the decision.

The focus of this document is on Phase 1 of the NGMN cluster connector project; early 5G deployment of e.g. TDD/5G NR 8T8R antennas.


Definition of the Testing Framework for the NGMN 5G Pre-Commercial Networks Trials

The focus of this document is to evaluate the performance of 5G new radio (NR) which is based on the 3GPP standard.

The main purpose of this document is to assess and benchmark the performance of the 3GPP compliant 5G NR.

Initially the focus is on phase 1 (release 15) of the 5G NR standardisation which focuses on enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and some aspects of ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC).

Cover Page SBA Phase 2 Deliverable

Service-Based Architecture in 5G Case Study and Deployment Recommendations

The main target of this document is to investigate the following aspects, which were not covered in phase 1.

  • How to make services more decoupled to achieve independent Life Cycle Management (LCM) and flexible service deployment and management.
  • How to achieve high performance, including low delay, high concurrency, high reliability, and security
  • Investigate how to support roaming across different 5G core networks
  • Case study for generation of network slicing and edge computing by service
  • Case study and recommendations for a distribution strategy of network services


Verticals URLLC Use Cases and Requirements

Verticals URLLC Use Cases and Requirements

This document summarizes URLLC use cases that have been developed in various SDO’s and industrial consortia, identifies some of those use cases that are more likely to be focus of the eco-system initially. It intends to provide guidance to SDO’s in developing technology to support URLLC and further work on “E2E technical solution for URLLC” in the NGMN project “Verticals URLLC requirements”.


5G Home Gateway

5G Small Cells at Home

The first objective of this white paper is to explore the potential technologies that could help improve the performance of local connectivity at home.
In addition to this, the second objective is to look for solutions of radio resources management at home that would be controlled by the network. The current situation is that the local connectivity is selected by a connectivity manager embedded in the operating system of smartphones that may not have a complete view of what happens, for instance in terms of traffic on cellular networks.
The global objective for operators is then to keep home users connected wirelessly to their local – fixed access network based – connectivity (delivered e.g. by Wi-Fi, a “small cell at home”) with a “premium” quality of service instead of adding pressure on the Radio Access part of the mobile macro network. Challenges for mobile macro networks are for example a lack of (licensed) spectrum that can cover efficiently indoors from outdoor macro network (e.g. low bands spectrum), cost of the radio sites, incl. equipment.

Extreme Long Range Communications for Deep Rural Coverage

Extreme Long Range Communications for Deep Rural Coverage (incl. airborne solutions)

In this document reasoning for providing coverage for sparsely populated areas are presented along with a number of Mobile and Satellite Technologies that could provide coverage to remote areas.

There is a sound business justification to provide affordable Voice and Data Services for sparsely populated areas, such as Sub-Sahara Africa, but also for higher ARPU markets with wide rural areas, such as North Canada. Mobile network operators worldwide have both economic and social incentives to offer services to rural residents, but efficiently serving dispersed populations with current technologies is difficult and rural access lags significantly behind urban access.

For many network operators, who want to expand addressable markets and satisfy users interest or who under regulatory obligations or social responsibilities willingness must cover vast areas of sparsely populated regions, a cost-effective technology is essential which on one hand provides adequate voice and data services and other hand is economically sustainable to deploy and to maintain.

The purpose of the NGMN’s Extreme Long Range Communications for Deep Rural Coverage program is to explore the challenge of addressing rural markets and to create industry momentum around long range communications solutions that are suitable for offering Internet access to rural populations who are underserved today.

5G Trial and Testing Initiative - Proof of Concept Major Conclusions

5G Trial and Testing Initiative – Proof of Concept Major Conclusions

Architectural Highlights/Gaps:

  • CU/DU split: the need for open interface F1 and functional split agreement
  • CP/UP split: beyond current 3GPP standardization, but widely embraced by the operator community; heated discussion on open interface E1 and multi-vendor, RRM implementations in O-RAN, etc.
  • Fronthaul: the fact that we have not been able to achieve FH testing in PoC phase is due to lack of well-established interface, but hopefully in PCNT.

Performance Statements:

  • We saw most of the performance KPI results are meeting with the PoC success criteria
  • Some of the KPIs didn’t meet criteria, which was due to functionality or feature missing implementation or due to environmental constrains. We recommend these to be checked during pre-commercial trial phase.