Category: Publications


Pre-Commercial Network Slicing Trials Major Conclusions

While several documents have already been produced on the network slicing concept, technical details, and business cases, this White Paper tackles a more challenging, complex and practical domain by consolidating the pre-commercial network slicing test results from different chipset platforms and indicates that 5G smartphones and 5G S-modules have been able to support network slicing. Tests were performed based on the published testing framework White Paper, where all test objectives, pre-configurations, procedures, and success criteria were defined. Observations introduced in this White Paper give the insight of some future improvements in network slicing.


Automation and Autonomous System Architecture Framework

As networks – through disaggregation and the move towards cloud-native – become increasingly complex it becomes ever more challenging to manage the network using existing processes and tools.  To keep pace there is a need to go beyond simple automation and towards the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) driven ‘autonomous’ systems that can learn how to manage and operate the network.  This publication describes a high-level framework, in terms of entities and functions that characterise autonomous system capabilities with an E2E (end-to-end) system perspective.

The architectural framework is intended to serve as guidance in the development of inter-operable and market enabling specifications, for a continuing advancement of the 5G ecosystem of heterogeneous access, virtualization, forward-looking service enablers, and emerging usage scenarios.


Standard RF Cluster Connector for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R Applications

The mobile communication industry has an increasing demand for highly integrated antennas with a large number of RF ports: the introduction of higher MIMO orders (8×8 configurations) and beamforming for FDD is an efficient way of sending signals in specific directions to improve throughput and reliability.  Nonetheless, antenna size is a critical factor in network deployment, which limits the number of connectors in antennas. Cluster connectors aim to solve this problem, through integrating several RF ports into single connectors.

This publication – the third in a series – focuses on RF cluster connectors for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R applications operating in frequency bands below 3 GHz.  Industry requirements for the connectors are identified and a test plan is defined.  Parties can use the test plan to determine whether candidate cluster connectors fulfil the requirements.


5G Mobile Network Sharing Security V1.02

Mobile network sharing could occur on different levels and with various sharing options in the mobile network infrastructure. Usually, these various sharing options require a thorough consideration of levels of protection. However, these levels of protection and security measures might affect the decision of selecting the types of sharing options. Vertical industries are facing a great challenge on selecting the suitable sharing option for their service and the adequate security for the particular mobile network infrastructure sharing option. This White Paper provides a reference for MNOs and vertical industries to identify the adequate security on each mobile network infrastructure sharing option.


Operating Disaggregated Networks V2.0

“ODiN – Operating Disaggregated Networks v2.0”, provides a detailed breakdown on how disaggregation impacts an operator’s organisation and processes. The publication covers RAN, core and transport disaggregation and outlines how planning, deployment, service provision, optimisation and maintenance processes will be impacted. In addition, the publication highlights the impact on processes of cloudification and the need to move towards the use of greater network automation whilst embracing DevSecOps. The opportunities, challenges and the impact on network testing are also explained. Developed by the NGMN Alliance’s Partners – operators, vendors, system integrators, and research institutes –, the new publication builds on “ODiN – Operating Disaggregated Networks v1.0” from October 2021, which outlined the opportunities and challenges of network disaggregation.


NGMN 5G Network Security Capability Framework for Verticals

MNOs leverage their 5G networks and services to provide vertical industries with dedicated solutions, including security services to make vertical applications secure and robust.

However, various vertical industries have different requirements related to security.

They may request customised network security protection from MNOs.

In this paper, the security requirements for 5G verticals in smart grid, UAS, healthcare, automotive and smart city are analysed and a framework of security capabilities is proposed.

A recommendation is provided to guide vertical industries on how to build and deploy appropriate security capabilities to improve the security level.



NGMN 5G Devices SA Migration Scenarios

To ensure the coexistence of 5G and 4G Devices, enabling the use of the new 5G Core Network, operators need to manage a transition period in which both 5G deployment architectures are present.

Taking a devices perspective, this white paper looks specifically at how Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) who currently operate 4G and 5G Non Standalone (NSA) networks can evolve to support 5G Standalone (SA) networks.

This paper presents a way to handle and optimize this transition. The goal is not only to guarantee an effective usage of the most valuable FDD and TDD Sub-6 bands (< 6GHz) but also effective usage of all frequency assets.

The re-farming strategies that can be implemented by Operators will inevitably be influenced by the speed of penetration of 5G Devices and the frequency bands that they support. Accordingly, a potential migration timeline has been defined.




Consumers, businesses and industry more than ever require mobile connectivity that is secure, reliable and of high-quality. The radio link between the device and the network is a critical factor in realising these performance needs.

Our latest “Recommendation on Standards for Passive Base Station Antenna Systems” provides the industry with an updated set of parameter definitions, measurement methodologies and reporting processes. This enables a uniform way to describe the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the network side of the radio link (the “base station antenna”).

Key updates include the addition of electrical parameters of passive antennas with beamforming capabilities (e.g. 8T8R antennas) as well as wind load polar charts measured in a wind tunnel to provide important data which engineers can use to confidently construct lighter radio masts with clear benefits to reducing materials usage in network build outs.

By using such a common approach describing passive base station antennas, mobile networks can be better and more cost-effectively planned, engineered, and operated to ensure the high-quality mobile service that users, businesses and industry demand.




The 5G network slicing can provide on-demand network slices to satisfy different service requirements. However, how to guarantee the network slicing service quality of 5G devices by the network slicing test based on the actual network elements is still a technical gap to be addressed.

Therefore, the fundamental purpose of this document is to provide a testing framework for 5G device network slicing pre-commercial trials based on the actual network elements, which include the test cases of the configuration and usage of NSSAI, UE route selection policy, interworking with EPC and other service specific network slicing test cases.



The identification of 6G use cases is key to predicting major trends in future usage scenarios and will help to steer the needs and requirements for future generational change. Therefore, operators, technology suppliers and academic advisors in NGMN joined forces and contributed their views on which 6G use cases they predict will emerge in the future decade. The result is published in NGMN’s “6G Use Cases and Analysis” White Paper.