In this first publication of NGMN’s Green Future Networks Phase 2 in 2023, the key challenges mobile operators face in developing sustainable supply chains are outlined. A review of the emerging regulatory and standards environment is conducted. Approaches and best practices in developing sustainable supply chains are identified by relating the emerging business and regulatory environment to examples of the changes that operators and their supply chain partners may need to make, both at strategic and operational levels. Integrating sustainability goals into the operator’s core objectives is of key importance as well as selecting suppliers whose own sustainability strategies are aligned with these goals. Finally, a checklist based on the best practices in the industry is provided to support operators in developing a sustainable procurement strategy. Examples from across the industry are included that highlight that companies are already embracing many of the concepts identified in this publication.
This White Paper focuses on the definition of the testing framework for Release 16, including the test configurations, the working scope, the trial setup requirements, and the testing methodologies. The scope of testing covers four technology categories: Smart and Effective System, Enhancement of Existing Capabilities, Maximising Spectrum Value, and New Application Enabler. Each category consists of several technology directions, which are broken down to the technology features highlighted from the global operators’ perspective. The corresponding test results will be published in future NGMN deliverables.
While several documents have already been produced on the network slicing concept, technical details, and business cases, this White Paper tackles a more challenging, complex and practical domain by consolidating the pre-commercial network slicing test results from different chipset platforms and indicates that 5G smartphones and 5G S-modules have been able to support network slicing. Tests were performed based on the published testing framework White Paper, where all test objectives, pre-configurations, procedures, and success criteria were defined. Observations introduced in this White Paper give the insight of some future improvements in network slicing.
As networks – through disaggregation and the move towards cloud-native – become increasingly complex it becomes ever more challenging to manage the network using existing processes and tools. To keep pace there is a need to go beyond simple automation and towards the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) driven ‘autonomous’ systems that can learn how to manage and operate the network. This publication describes a high-level framework, in terms of entities and functions that characterise autonomous system capabilities with an E2E (end-to-end) system perspective.
The architectural framework is intended to serve as guidance in the development of inter-operable and market enabling specifications, for a continuing advancement of the 5G ecosystem of heterogeneous access, virtualization, forward-looking service enablers, and emerging usage scenarios.
The mobile communication industry has an increasing demand for highly integrated antennas with a large number of RF ports: the introduction of higher MIMO orders (8×8 configurations) and beamforming for FDD is an efficient way of sending signals in specific directions to improve throughput and reliability. Nonetheless, antenna size is a critical factor in network deployment, which limits the number of connectors in antennas. Cluster connectors aim to solve this problem, through integrating several RF ports into single connectors.
This publication – the third in a series – focuses on RF cluster connectors for FDD 4T4R to 8T8R applications operating in frequency bands below 3 GHz. Industry requirements for the connectors are identified and a test plan is defined. Parties can use the test plan to determine whether candidate cluster connectors fulfil the requirements.
Previous publications in this series looked at 5G TDD @ 3.5 GHz (phase 1) and port naming conventions for MQ4 / MQ5 connectors addressing TDD 8T8R passive antennas and radios (for 4G and 5G NR) (phase 2).